Powtórka ze stylistyki

WYRAZY I WYRAŻENIA ŁĄCZĄCE

Są to słowa i wyrażenia, które łączą pewne elementy w zdaniu. Używamy ich, gdy prezentujemy nowe argumenty, zarówno za, jak i przeciw.

Łączniki zdaniowe

Wprowadzamy argumenty:

  • To begin with…
  • In the first place…
  • It cannot be denied that…
  • It must/may be said that…
  • To some…
  • Some people say/claim…

Dodajemy argumenty:

  • what is more
  • moreover
  • also
  • furthermore
  • not only… but also

Wprowadzamy argumenty przeciwne:

  • However
  • On the other hand
  • Nevertheless
  • In contrast
  • although, in spite of,
  • Despite

Aby podsumować:

  • to conclude
  • summing up

 

DODAWANIE NOWYCH ELEMENTÓW

Prześledź poniższe zdania. Spójrz, w jaki sposób można łączyć elementy, które nie są ze sobą w sprzeczności.

  • and (i)
    She was rich and beautiful.
  • also (także)
    She was rich. She was also beautiful.
  • not only … but also (nie tylko … lecz także)
    She was not only rich but also beautiful.
  • in addition to (w dodatku)
    She was rich in addition to being beautiful.
  • besides (oprócz, oprócz tego)
    She was rich. Besides, she was beautiful.
    Besides being rich, she was beautiful.
    She was beautiful besides being rich.
  • neither … nor (ani … ani)
    She was neither poor nor ugly.
  • not … either (ani … ani)
    She was not poor and not ugly either.
  • furthermore (ponadto)
    She was rich. Furthermore, she was beautiful.
  • moreover (ponadto)
    She was rich. Moreover, she was beautiful.
  • what is more (ponadto)
    She was rich. What is more, she was beautiful.

 

JAK ŁĄCZYĆ ELEMENTY ZDANIA – ABY POKAZAĆ KONTRAST

  • but (ale)
    She was poor but happy.
  • however (jednakże, a jednak)
    She was poor. However, she was happy.
  • nevertheless (niemniej jednak, mimo to)
    She was poor. Nevertheless, she was happy.
  • on the one hand… on the other hand (z jednej strony… z drugiej strony)
    On the one hand, it is good to be rich. On the other hand, money does not bring happiness.
  • although (chociaż)
    Although she was poor, she was happy.
  • in spite of (pomimo) + forma -ing, rzeczownik lub konstrukcja the fact that + zdanie
    In spite of being poor, she was happy.
    In spite of lack of money, she was happy.
    In spite of the fact that she was poor, she was happy.
  • despite (pomimo) + forma -ing, rzeczownik lub konstrukcja the fact that + zdanie
    Despite being poor, she was happy.
    Despite her constant lack of money, she was happy.
    Despite the fact that she was poor, she was happy.
  • yet (formalne – a jednak)
    She was poor, yet she was happy.
  • still (a jednak)
    She was poor. Still, she was happy.
  • while / whereas (a, podczas gdy – kontrastujące)
    She was poor whereas you are rich.

 

POKAZYWANIE PRZYCZYNY I REZULTATU

Przyczyna

  • because (dlatego że)
    He wants to marry her because she is very rich.
  • as / since (dlatego że, skoro)
    Since she does not want to marry me, I will ask somebody else.
  • the reason for + rzeczownik – forma -ing is/was that (przyczyna)
    The reason for this marriage was that she was pregnant.
  • the reason why + zdanie is/was that
    The reason why he married her was that she was pregnant.
  • because of (z powodu) + rzeczownik lub konstrukcja the fact that
    Because of his marrying this poor and ugly girl his family was unhappy.
    Because of this marriage his family was unhappy.
    Because of the fact that he married this poor and ugly girl his family was unhappy.
  • due to (z powodu) + rzeczownik lub konstrukcja the fact that
    She lost her property due to the storm.
    She lost her property due to her being too lazy to take care of it.
    She lost her property due to the fact that her husband wrongly invested the money.
  • owing to (z powodu) + rzeczownik lub konstrukcja the fact that
    She got divorced owing to her husband’s misfortune.
    She got divorced owing to her being promiscuous.
    She got divorced owing to the fact that she had an affair.

Rezultat

  • as a result (w rezultacie)
    He invested in potatoes. As a result, they went bancrupt.
  • therefore (z tego powodu)
    They went bancrupt. Therefore, he committed suicide.
  • consequently / as a consequence (w konsekwencji)
    He committed suicide. Consequently, she became a widow.
  • so (więc)
    He died, so she went to a nunnery.
  • so + przymiotnik – tak – np. Była tak ładna, że…
    She was so pretty that a prince saw her there and asked her to marry him.
  • such + rzeczownik lub fraza rzeczownikowa (przymiotnik z rzeczownikiem) – tak, np. Był to tak przystojny książę, że…
    It was such a handsome prince that she agreed.