List kierowany do kolegi lub koleżanki jest listem nieoficjalnym i należy używać stylu nieformalnego.
List, który musisz napisać na maturze jest bardzo krótki, jednak pamiętaj, że najważniejsze jest przekazanie wszystkich informacji z polecenia.
- Sprawdź po napisaniu, czy na pewno czegoś nie przeoczyłeś.
- Następnie popraw list pod względem formalnym.
- Postaraj się umieścić w liście wszystkie podane powyżej elementy stylu nieoficjalnego.
- Zamień formy pełne na ściągnięte.
- Zamień dwa, trzy słowa na bardziej nieformalne (ale nie używaj przekleństw, choć one też są oczywiście nieformalne!).
- Dodaj parę potocznych wyrażeń, zamień jakiś czasownik (lub parę czasowników) na phrasal verb.
- Ubarw całość częstymi wykrzyknikami i myślnikami.
Styl nieformalny cechuje:
- używanie contractions – form ściągniętych,
zamiast I am – I’m,
zamiast you will – you’ll;
- Używanie nieformalnego słownictwa, np.: mates, hellish;
- Używanie potocznych wyrażeń, często pytań i wykrzykników, np.
- guess what?
- do you remember?
- anyway, right?
- you know!
- by the way!
- Używanie phrasal verbs (czasowników frazowych)
- Używanie wykrzykników i myślników.
Jakich jeszcze listów nieformalnych możesz oczekiwać?
Możliwości jest sporo. Dla ćwiczenia przeanalizuj poniższe polecenia i spróbuj napisać przynajmniej jeden taki list.
1) Właśnie zmieniłeś szkołę. Napisz list do kolegi / koleżanki w Anglii, w którym:
- poinformujesz o zmianie szkoły;
- wyjaśnisz przyczyny tej zmiany;
- krótko opiszesz nową szkołę i napiszesz, co Ci się w niej najbardziej podoba, a co nie podoba;
- zaprosisz kolegę / koleżankę na ferie.
2) Miesiąc temu wróciłeś z obozu językowego w Anglii. Napisz list do rodziny, u której mieszkałeś, w którym:
- opiszesz zmiany w Twoim życiu;
- podziękujesz za to, że byli dla Ciebie mili i pokazali Ci parę ciekawych miejsc w Anglii;
- określisz, jak wiele nauczyłeś się podczas kursu i opiszesz, jak teraz uczysz się angielskiego;
- wyrazisz nadzieję, że kiedyś się jeszcze spotkacie.
Właśnie wróciłeś z sylwestrowego wypadu na narty z grupą znajomych. Napisz list do kolegi / koleżanki z USA / Anglii.
- gdzie i z kim pojechałeś na sylwestra;
- gdzie jeździliście na nartach i co Ci się przytrafiło w tym czasie;
- jak spędziliście wieczór sylwestrowy;
- wyraź chęć, aby Twój kolega / koleżanka spędził / -a w przyszłym roku sylwestra w Polsce.
o zachowaniu odpowiedniej formy i stylu listu, nie umieszczaj jednak żadnych adresów. Podpisz się jako XYZ. Długość listu musi wynosić od 120 do 150 słów.
- pełen przekaz informacji,
- poprawność językowa,
- bogactwo językowe.
(1) Dear Susan,
1. Wstęp – np. podziękuj za list, zapytaj, jak się ta druga osoba czuje, nawiąż do wspólnych znajomych etc.
(2) Thanks for your e-mail from Brazil – I envy you! (3) This hellish winter!!! Do you remember Anne? (3) She broke her leg on ice when she was catching the bus and welcomed the New Year’s Eve in hospital!!!
2. Główna część listu – tu umieść większość wymaganych informacji.
(2) Anyway, I was luckier than Anne – I spent the last night of the year in Zakopane with my mates (2) from school. We went skiing everyday to Kasprovy. Once I lost one ski on a chair-lift! And guess what (3) – some handsome skier brought it to me! (3) We celebrated the New Year’s Eve in a stunning bar, eating fresh trout and drinking beer. There was splendid folk music and Mary fell in love with one of the musicians! (3)
3. Zakończenie – tu napisz, dlaczego już musisz kończyć. Nawiąż do waszego przyszłego spotkania itp.
Well, I must finish now and get down (4) to work. I’ll send you some photos from Zakopane – perhaps you’ll (5) spend the next New Year’s Eve in Poland, with us – in the mountains? Write back soon – right?
All the best,
(1) To typowy początek listu nieformalnego. Pamiętaj – po pozdrowieniu jest przecinek, nie wykrzyknik.
(2) Używaj nieformalnych słów i wyrażeń.
(3) Używaj pytań, wykrzykników i myślników
(4) Używaj phrasal verbs
(5) Używaj form ściągniętych
Otrzymałeś list od kolegi, który planuje odwiedzić Cię w lipcu. Napisz do niego list o tym, co zaplanowałeś na jego wizytę i daj mu wskazówki, jakie ubrania ma ze sobą zabrać na tę porę roku.
Sorry I haven’t written for so long but I’ve been really busy lately studying for my final exams. It was great to get your letter and hear all your latest news, especially the part about you coming to visit in July.
The weather is warm then so we should be able to spend quite a bit of time at the beach. I think you will really enjoy the clubs in the city, particularly the one with techno music that has just opened. The film festival will be on then so we shall take the advantage of that as well.
You asked what clothes you should bring. You should manage with summer shorts, t-shirts, some sandals and a sweater or jacket for the evenings, which can be rather cool, owing to the sea breezes. Don’t forget to bring your diving equipment, if you would like to try diving too. I’d better go and get on with my exam preparation. I hope your exams go well too.
I’m really looking forward to seeing you in July!
All the best,
PS. Let me know what bus you are taking, so I could be able to pick you up from the station.
- take the advantage of… – wykorzystać okazje, aby…
- manage with… – poradzić sobie z…
- owing to – przez, z powodu, ponieważ
- I’m really looking forward to… – czekam z niecierpliwością na…
- let somebody know – dawać komuś znać
- pick somebody up – odebrać kogoś
Write a letter to your friend telling him/ her about the latest event you took part in.
Odwiedziłeś ostatnio muzeum, gdzie na wystawie pokazano, w jakich fatalnych warunkach żyją zwierzęta w zoo. Napisz list do przyjaciela/ przyjaciółki, opisując swoje wrażenia i odczucia po wizycie w muzeum.
Thanks for your letter. It was very good to hear from you again after all this time. I hope you will overcome this horrible flu and you will be able to come and see me.
I have been studying a lot recently, due to my matura exam that is on the way. Nevertheless, I have found some time to see a provoking exhibition in one of Warsaw museums. It shows horrible pictures of animals being kept in captivity, and actually is about human right to keep them in cages and boxes just for the pleasure of it. Of course, I am aware that many species are saved every day from becoming extinct by zoos where they are fed properly and encouraged to breed. But on the other hand, I do believe that the only good place for a wild animal is its habitat and the open space. That is why I find it really hard to accept when I see all these beautiful birds and animals living behind bars and suffering from the lack of freedom.
What do you think about it?
I am looking forward to hearing from you and seeing you after all those months.
Write a letter to your friend telling him/ her about the latest documentary you have seen recently. Describe your feeling after watching the movie.
Obejrzałeś ostatnio dokument o tym, jak ryzykowne może być spożywanie niezdrowego jedzenia. Napisz list do przyjaciela, w którym podzielisz się swoimi odczuciami na temat obejrzanego filmu.
I am writing to recommend you one great documentary I have seen recently. It is called „Super size me” and is about hazards connected with eating junk food. This film opened my eyes and I hope it will do the same to you.
In his documentary Morgan Spurlock decides to take part in a risky experiment: he eats three meals a day in McDonald’s restaurants, for 30 days, nothing else. You may think, that is great, but it appears that eating only junk food and drinking nothing more than sweet sodas is a total disaster for your health. While watching the movie we see how quickly Morgan changes from happy, fit and slim man into unhappy big belly, who is too tired to go upstairs to his room. His blood pressure changes dramatically, he puts on 11 kilos and, afterwards, he needs a year to make his liver healthy again.
You should see this film to answer the question: do you know what you eat? I do now! Write to me when you see it.
Your pen friend wants to pay you a visit during the oncoming holiday. Write a letter inviting him to come and recommend the place he are going to stay in.
Twój przyjaciel chciałby odwiedzić Cię w wakacje. Zaproś go do siebie, opisując mu miejsce, w którym się zatrzyma (np. Twój dom).
How are you? Have you passed all your final exams? I hope you have because I’d love you to come and spend some time during the holiday with me.
I usually spend summer at my parents’ summer house near a beautiful lake. It is a really nice big wooden house, surrounded with trees, with a cosy porch and a balcony overlooking the forest. The house is very comfortable and every one has their own room. On the ground floor there is a small but sunny kitchen leading to a large, spacious living room. We usually spend evenings playing cards or snooker there. Owning to the room’s porch you can sit outside but still enjoy the company. On the first floor there are our bedrooms. Mine has a balcony but it is much cluttered because I keep all my old toys there. I have painted the walls orange so it is very bright and warm.
I am never bored when I spend my holidays at the lake and I hope you will not be too. I will be pleased to have you there and so I am looking forward to seeing you.
Write a letter to your friend describing him a sports event which you have recently taken part in.
Napisz list do przyjaciela, opisując mu wydarzenie sportowe, w jakim ostatnio wziąłeś udział.
How are things going with you? Have you seen the match between Chelsea and Liverpool? I was glad that Chelsea won although our Polish goalkeeper played in Liverpool.
I must tell you about the match I took part in last Saturday. You know that I play in a local teenage football team. This match was our last chance to get to the final in our region. As we ran onto the pitch and saw the opposition, we knew it was going to be tough. We played hard, but at half-time they were leading 1:0. In the second half we struggled to get the ball through the defense. Suddenly my team-mate got the ball, passed it to me and I headed it straight into the goal! Next goal we headed the same way, just before the referee blew his whistle. We won and now we are preparing for the final! I wish you could come and see it. Anyway, keep fingers crossed for next Saturday.
I hope to hear from you soon
Write a letter to a friend where you will describe him a family gathering.
Napisz list do przyjaciela, w którym opowiesz mu o uroczystości rodzinnej.
First of all I would like to wish You Happy Birthday and all the best! I hope you will have a great time at your birthday party!
My party took place last Saturday, exactly on my birthday. It was only a family gathering, as I am going to have a separate party for my friends and mates from school. But still, I was very pleased when I saw my favourite uncle Tom and auntie Lucy, who came with my little niece Suzie. She had christening last weekend. The party was great although it was a sit down meal. After all you could not expect my grandfather dancing to hip-hop music! Anne, my sister came with her husband and parents-in-law. She got married last month and just came back from the honeymoon. Mother and her husband (a stepfather of mine) prepared soft drinks and snacks. We had a barbecue in the garden and at the end my cousin, who has just got engaged, brought a big birthday cake!
I liked my party a lot and wish the same to you!
You are at school in England, describe a typical school day to you penfriend.
Jesteś w szkole w Anglii, opisz swojemu korespondencyjnemu przyjacielowi, jak wygląda Twój zwykły szkolny dzień.
I haven’t heard from you for a long time. It’s good to know you are doing well. You ask me how my usual day at school looks like, so here is my letter.
The day starts at 8.40 with the first bell ring. All the pupils go to the registration which lasts until 9 o’clock. Then lessons begin. I have three lessons before the morning break and lunch. After that I have two or three study – periods and another break. Lessons recommence at two o’clock and last until quarter past three. At the end of the school day I’m tired and just go home by bus.
Studying is really a hard work as you see but I’ve made some great friends here, so school doesn’t depress me much.
Write a letter to your English friend telling him about the meeting with a politician that has recently taken place in your school.
Napisz list do swojego angielskiego przyjaciela i opowiedz mu o spotkaniu z politykiem, które ostatnio odbyło się w Twojej szkole.
How are you? Are you preparing for your matura exam? I have been thinking about changing my interest and trying to take an entrance exam at political science. Let me explain you why.
I have met one politician recently, thanks to a meeting that was held in my secondary school. He is a member of Polish parliament and a representative of one of the parties in my country. During the meeting he was telling us about the political scene in Poland.
We learned about the importance of coalition in government, and about the difference between the leading party and the opposition. Now I can explain to you that everything depends on election results which means, on society’s voting. Then, the deal between the parties depends on their policy. Each party has got its own attitude to social problems, internal and foreign affairs and that is why it is so difficult sometimes to find a solution and alliance.
As you see I am really getting interested in politics now.
What do you thing about it?
Write soon, Best wishes,
Write a letter to your friend where you will describe them a medical operation you have been through recently.
Napisz list do przyjaciela, w którym opowiesz mu o ostatnio przebytej operacji/chorobie.
How are you? Sorry for not writing to you recently but I spent last week in a local hospital. It is hard to believe but I had appendicitis!
It all started innocently, I just had a small stomachache. But later that night the pain in my stomach was getting stronger and stronger. It was aching so much that I could not even touch it! Early in the morning my parents took me to the hospital and our doctor quickly decided that I would have an operation. The same day I was put on the operating table and soon was under the anesthetic. I woke up after some time. It still ached in the left part of my stomach but I did not feel like vomiting any more! The doctor did not allow me to eat for first two days and then I could only eat dairy products, nothing spicy or hot. Now I feel much better and I only have couple of scars to remind me of the appendix.
Hope to hear from you soon.
Write a letter to your friend telling them about your winter holidays.
Napisz list do przyjaciela, w którym opowiesz mu o swoich zimowych wakacjach.
How are you? Have you already visited the Alps, as you were going to?
I have just come back from Polish mountains, where I spent two lovely weeks. It was the best winter holidays I have ever had! I went there with a few friends. We booked a room in a nice hostel, very close to the slopes. Every day we woke up early, eat nutritious breakfast and run on the slope. I had never skied before, but I took couple lessons from the instructor there and after three days I could ski easily as well as the rest. In the afternoon we had dinner and after that we usually went trekking in the lower parts of the mountains or sightseeing in the city. I ended up days in one of the restaurants, eating regional dishes. The weather was great. Every day the sun woke us up and the sky was clear. On the way home we visited Cracow. We saw the old market and the Jewish district.
You should come to Poland some day, I promise you will have a great time!
Write a letter to your friend telling her about your last excursion to the shopping centre.
Napisz list do przyjaciela, w którym opowiesz mu o ostatniej wyprawie do centrum handlowego.
Have you already bought some cute things for winter? You must give me the names of these two favourite shops of yours where you keep buying sweaters, trousers and stuff.
I have just come back from a huge sales in a shopping mall near my home and I must tell you: there are amazing discounts and special prices on everything.
First, I went to my favourite jeans shop, where I found a perfect pair of navy jeans. Then I visited this nice small boutique with cute funny t-shirts and I left with four of them. Finally I decided to have a look at skirts. I spent a lot of time flicking through the stalls. When I finally chose three, I had to wait for hours in a queue to the fitting room. When I got there I immediately tried on the one I liked the most. That was it, a bargain of my dreams, and only at half of the price.
As you see I spent whole afternoon wandering from one shop to another and ended up without my monthly pocket money, but very happy!
See you at the Saturday night fever.
Write a letter to your friend, where you present him the book you have recently read.
Napisz list do przyjaciela, w którym opowiesz mu o ostatnio przeczytanej książce.
How are you? Are you still cold with running nose and a headache? If you still lie in bed, then I have got something for you.
I have just finished reading a great book written by Erica Jong. You have probably heard about her most famous book, called ‘Fear of flying’. This one is titled ‘Sappho’s leap’, and as you may guess, tells a story of a famous singer and a poet – Sappho. I remember our lessons of ancient times, what I did not find very interesting. But this book is really worth reading. It reminds a bit of a fairy tale and an autobiography as well. The narrator is Sappho herself, as she leads us along fabulous stories of her life from innocent childhood, through maturity to old woman’s life. As you may guess, most of the stories is writer’s imagination, but except the fascinating appearance and personality of the main character, and her adventurous soul, we learn a lot about the ancient world, its customs and believes. Sappho’s world is a place still full of gods and goddess and magic. What’s more, everything what you have heard about ancient times happens in this book. I recommend you ‘Sappho’s leap’, you will love it.
Write a letter to your friend, describing him a job you have already got.
Napisz list do przyjaciela, w którym opowiesz mu o swojej nowej pracy.
How are you? Hope it will not take you long to look for the job.
I am writing to tell You that I have just found a perfect job for me. I have send my CV to one computer company and they appear to be satisfied with my knowledge and experience. I will be a manager, who runs the design department. I will be responsible for production of new designs of computers and I will also be in charge of design budget. I will have 15 people under me and I hope I will be a good manager. It is a full time job and it is very flexible, which means that it is up to me when I start and finish as soon as the work is done.
I just hope I will be able to use my knowledge and organizational skills to prove I am a good employee. I will earn a so called basic salary plus extra money – a bonus – for every successfully finished project, which is nice.
I can not wait to hear all the news from You.
Write a letter to your friend describing him one of the members of your family.
Napisz list do przyjaciela, opisując w nim jednego z członków Twojej rodziny.
How are you? It is so good to write to you again after a long period of quietness. I have finally come back from the United States, where I visited my big family. I met two funny cousins, who I would like to write you about.
Peter and Robert are identical twin brothers. Physically, they are indistinguishable, like ‘two peas in a pod’, as the saying goes. They have the same blond hair and fine features, and they tend to dress in the same casual style. When you get to know them, however, it soon becomes clear that their personalities are completely different. Peter is very outgoing, assertive and ambitious. Although people find him rather pompous and conceited, to me he simply seems to be full of confidence. Robert, on the other hand, is more of an introvert. He very rarely socializes, preferring to spend time on his own. He is a dreamer who can sends hours staring at the clouds. As a result he sometimes gives an impression of being lazy, while a few people regard him even as slow-witted.
I like them both though, and hope you will too, because they are going to spend this summer holidays with us.
See you in July and hope you will write soon,
You have seen interesting IT solutions in a TV program, tell your friend about them.
W programie telewizyjnym widziałeś ciekawe rozwiązania techniczne, opisz je koledze.
Surely you are surprised to see my hand writting, but as a computer nerd you will definitely understand why I am writing to you this snail mail letter.I’m now in UK countryside completely disconnected visiting my grandparents, I have no acces to a computerL.Imagine that I have seen using virtual reality headsets and gloves to do shopping instead of long tireing journeys to a small badly ecquipped town shop. Just like that, consumers can browse for products in a virtual shop wearing head mounts. From a remote location a consumer is able to manoeuvre and view products along shelves in a shopping centre. Incredible, but it really happens. Unfortunately not here as I have seen it on TV last night and cannot wait for it to become reality for me. I even cannot wait to switch on my computer again.Take care my friend,Bye.