Państwo i społeczeństwo

THE RIGHT to decide

About euthanasia Poland was shocked. It was the first time. The first time when somebody went to court to ask for his freedom to die – for euthanasia. It was two weeks before his eighteenth birthday. Motorbikes were his greatest passion. And the accident as many that happen with motorbikes. He became paralysed – from his neck to his feet. “The Pope was able to say: do not artificially sustain

A Cruel Hunt That Must Be Stopped

Let’s stop hunters Canadian river of blood More than 140,000 seals are killed in less than two days each winter in Newfoundland, Canada every year. Protestors often respond that this figure represents only a fraction of the total number of seals killed, because many seals’ bodies fall into the water or under the ice and are not counted. Environmental and animal groups are hoping that officials will bow to pressure and reduce


1. When they were kids, the President and the Prime Minister in Poland played in a film. What was the title? A. The Giant Peach B. The Little Detectives C. The Two Who Stole the Moon D. The Two Brothers 2. Jarosław Kaczyński A. has a wife and two children. B. has a wife but no children. C. is divorced. D. has never married. 3. Which of the two brothers

Politics of Poland

• Poland is a parliamentary representative democratic republic. • The Prime Minister of Poland is the head of government. • There is a multi-party system. • Executive power is exercised by the government, which consists of a council of ministers led by the Prime Minister. The government is formally announced by the president and must pass a motion of confidence in the Sejm within two weeks. • Legislative power lies

Crime story

Read a story When inspector Reeve heard the phone in the middle of the night, he thought for the twentieth time this month that perhaps he should change his job. Taking off his warm pyjamas he looked with self-pity at the pink foot of his wife breathing peacefully. It was two o’clock. Why do murders always happen in the middle of the night? He knew. The criminals must expect the

Their opinons

During the 1990s, more than 2 million children died as a result of armed conflicts. They were often deliberately targeted and murdered. More than three times that number were permanently disabled or seriously injured. Every minute, two people are killed in conflicts around the world. What is the fighting about? Most of the time, people die for money and power, only sometimes they cry for freedom. Bartek In Somalia several

About safety in Poland

Although Poland boasts that crime rates decline every year, tourists still are warned to be careful while walking the Polish streets. You can find this information for tourists visiting Poland: Poland generally has a low rate of violent crime, the incidence of street crime, which sometimes involves violence, is moderate.  Major cities have higher rates of crime against residents and foreign visitors than other areas. • Organized groups of thieves

An adult party!

Read a story We all love parties! It is said that as long as you’re young and healthy, you should have fun. Isn’t it fantastic to meet your friends and have a good time?   Forget about all your problems with school and conflicts with your parents? Yeah, it’s great. Unfortunately, there are some teenagers who forget completely how dangerous it may be to lose control. There are many different

International Organizations

The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement The mission of the movement is to protect human life and health and to alleviate suffering, regardless the nationality, race, religion or political beliefs. The movement has several parts: the ICRC (International Committee of the Red Cross), National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (for example Polish Red Cross founded in 1919) and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent


INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS – STOSUNKI MIĘDZYNARODOWE tense relations – napięte stosunki diplomatic – dyplomatyczne to break off – zerwać to revive – odnowić to reduce tension – redukować napięcia to negotiate – negocjować, pertraktować summit (meeting) – spotkanie na szczycie to reach compromise – osiągnąć kompromis to reconcile – dojść do pojednania to sign a treaty – podpisać układ diplomacy – dyplomacja diplomatic protocol – protokół dyplomatyczny European Union (EU) – Unia

WELFARE – opieka społeczna

WELFARE – opieka społeczna Poverty A lot of people in Poland live in poverty. If they have right to welfare, they turn to the Department of Social Security. They receive a benefit but it is often too low for them to get by so they often fall into debts. Hopefully, there are a lot of charity organizations which offer financial and material support for people in need. Poverty – ubóstwo to live


RELIGION & DENOMINATIONS There are more than one hundred registered churches and religious associations in Poland. The biggest numbers belong to the Catholic Church, approximately 95% of the religious segment of Polish society. There are now 40 dioceses and 13 Latin metropolitan archdioceses, and one Byzantine-Ukrainian metropolitan archdiocese. The head of a diocese is its bishop. All the bishops together constitute the Episcopate of Poland. Apart from the Catholic Church there


Economy Since the turning point of 1989, Poland has undergone great political, social and economic changes. The introduction of democratic structures, the shift from a command economy to the free market and wide-ranging systemic reforms are all achievements which enable the country to develop its economy. After a short period of recession and stagnation the crisis has been overcome. Although the inflation rate is still high, there are more and more investments

AUTHORITY – władza

authority –  władza political system – ustrój democracy – demokracja dictatorship – dyktatura monarchy – monarchia oligarchy – oligarchia republic – republika socialistic – socjalistyczny communistic – komunistyczny communism – komunizm capitalistic – kapitalistyczny totalitarian – totalitarny totalitarianism – totalitaryzm anarchy – anarchia empire – cesarstwo national authority – władze państwowe Head of State – głowa państwa president – prezydent government – rząd to rule – rządzić legislative authority –

Third World

The term Third World is not universally accepted. Some prefer other terms such as Global South, the South, ­non-industrialized countries, developing countries, underdeveloped countries, undeveloped countries, mal-developed countries, emerging nations. The term „Third World” is the one most widely used in the media today, but no term can describe all less-developed countries accurately. The First, the Second, and the Third World When people talk about the poorest countries of the

STATE AND SOCIETY – zadanie maturalne

Zadanie maturalne Przeczytaj uważnie artykuł, z którego usunięto pięć zdań. Zdania te wraz z jednym, dodatkowym zdaniem, które nie pasuje do żadnej luki, oznaczono literami A–F. Dobierz wypowiedzi tak, aby otrzymać spójny i logiczny tekst. W każde puste miejsce wstaw literę odpowiadającą wybranemu zdaniu. Do we still need the norms of society? Watching carefully public life one may get the impression that most norms of society have lost importance recently.

Politics – government, political parties, parliament

During your matura exam, you may be required to complete a task connected with politics – political systems, government etc. For example, you can be asked to give answers to questions concerning a text related to political issues etc. Below you will find vocabulary necessary to talk or write about this topic. Country anthem – hymn państwowy Błędnie: The monks sung anthems while the Archbishop prayed at the High Altar. Poprawnie: The


unemployment – bezrobocie job market – rynek pracy unemployed – bezrobotny unemployment rate – wskaźnik bezrobocia increasing – wzrastający decreasing – malejący job centre – biuro pośrednictwa pracy job application – podanie o pracę to lose a job – stracić pracę to dismiss, to fire sb – zwolnić kogoś to give sb a notice – wypowiedzieć pracę to make sb redundant – zwolnić kogoś z pracy unemployment benefit – zasiłek dla bezrobotnych dole –


crime – przestępstwo criminal – przestępca juvenile delinquency – przestępczość nieletnich juvenile delinquent – nieletni przestępca to commit a crime – popełnić przestępstwo offence – wykroczenie thief – złodziej theft – kradzież murderer – morderca murder – morderstwo to murder – zamordować to stab – pchnąć nożem to shoot – zastrzelić to strangle – udusić to poison – otruć robbery – rabunek, napad to rob sb of sth – okraść kogoś z czegoś


military service – służba wojskowa conscription – pobór do wojska army – armia command – dowództwo headquarters – kwatera główna barracks – koszary uniform – mundur helmet – hełm troops – oddziały platoon – pluton regiment – pułk rank – ranga, stopień wojskowy soldier – żołnierz officer – oficer recruit – rekrut infantry – piechota artillery – artyleria tank – czołg the navy – marynarka wojenna fleet – flota cruiser