• Poland is a parliamentary representative democratic republic.

• The Prime Minister of Poland is the head of government.

• There is a multi-party system.

• Executive power is exercised by the government, which consists of a council of ministers led by the Prime Minister. The government is formally announced by the president and must pass a motion of confidence in the Sejm within two weeks.

• Legislative power lies in the government and the two chambers of parliament: the Sejm and the Senate. Parliamentary elections occur every four years. The lower chamber – Sejm – has 460 members. The Senate has 100 members. Together the Sejm and the Senate form the National Assembly.

• The Judiciary power is independent of the executive and the legislative power. Its major institutions are the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court and the Constitutional Tribunal and the Tribunal of State. The Sejm appoints the Ombudsman (Civil Rights Spokesman).

• The president is the head of state. He has the power to veto legislation passed by parliament and he represents the country abroad. Presidential elections are every five years.

• The political system is defined in the Polish Constitution. The freedoms guaranteed by the constitution must be fulfilled: the Constitutional Tribunal is a body which ensures this.

• The main parties in Poland: PiS (Law and Justice), PO (Citizens Platform), SLD (Democratic Left Alliance), Self-Defence of the Republic of Poland, League of Polish Families, Polish Peasant Party.

The President

→ Executive power
The government
The Prime Minister

→ Legislative power
The Sejm
The Senate

→ Judiciary power


Improve your vocabulary!

executive power – władza wykonawcza
legislative power – władza ustawodawcza
judiciary power – władza sądownicza
republic – republika
multi-party system – system wielopartyjny
independent – niezależny
Supreme Court – Sąd Najwyższy
appoint – wyznaczać, mianować