England is only a part of the United Kingdom and you mustn’t forget that!

English language, teatime (czas na herbatę/podwieczorek) and London with its typical tourist attractions: Big Ben, Trafalgar Square and the double-decker buses (autobusy piętrusy). These are the first things that spring to mind when you talk about England. But ”hello”! England is only a part of the United Kingdom and you mustn’t forget that! The UK, or just Britain – the full name (pełna nazwa): The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – is full of variety (różnorodność)!
I’m sure you’ve heard about Scotland. The Scots are known for their bagpipes (kobzy) – fantastic music! – and kilts (kilty). Apart from (oprócz) culture, architecture and the highest peak (szczyt) in the UK – Ben Nevis (1,344 metres), Scotland has Nessie! The Loch Ness monster – seen only by a few people.

Wales is another part of the UK. Snowdonia National Park attracts (przyciąga) tourists from all over the world. And when you hear the Welsh language, you are grateful (wdzięczny) you don’t have to learn it at school! It is so difficult.
And of course Northern Ireland, a beautiful, green country. The Irish music is really incredible!

So if you want to see the UK, you can’t just stay in one place. You will need several weeks to visit the whole country! So start practicing (zacznij ćwiczyć) English and its dialects!

  • spring to mind – przyjść na myśl (dosł.: wskakuje na myśl); jest to idiom, czyli wyrażenie (wyraz, zwrot), którego nie można dosłownie przetłumaczyć na język polski. Każdy język ma swoje idiomy.
  • the United Kingdom – Zjednoczone Królestwo; przed nazwami krajów nie używamy rodzajnika (a/an/the). Jeżeli natomiast w nazwie kraju jest słowo „unia”, „the” jest konieczne, np. the USA; the UK.
  • you mustn’t forget – nie wolno ci zapomnieć; zapamiętaj, że „must” oznacza „musieć”, w przeczeniu jednak słowo to zmienia znaczenie: mustn’t + bezokolicznik – nie wolno.
  • you’ve heard – słyszałeś; czas the Present Perfect; używany, gdy mówimy o czymś, co wydarzyło się w przeszłości, a w chwili obecnej ma skutki: słyszałeś i teraz już wiesz.
  • they are known – są znane; strona bierna (passive voice) w czasie teraźniejszym: osoba + to be (w odpowiedniej formie) + III forma czasownika.
  • the highest – najwyższy; stopień najwyższy przymiotnika regularnego (z końcówką -est) zawsze poprze­dzamy „the”; przymiotniki nieregularne w stopniu wyższym nie mają końcówki -est: the + most + przymiotnik (the most beautiful).
  • you don’t have to learn – nie musisz się uczyć; „have to” – czasownik modalno-podobny – musieć; w pytaniu użyjesz „do/does”, w przeczeniu zaś „don’t/doesn’t”.


About the Royal Family

(O rodzinie królewskiej)


  • King Richard III was probably the most hated English King apart from (oprócz) John. Unfortunately, his life story is not very well known (znana). Shakespeare portrayed (sportretował) him in his play as a cold, evil child killer (zabójca dzieci) but Shakespeare might have been wrong (mógł się mylić). Anyway, Richard III died at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 and we will never learn the whole truth about him.
  • Elizabeth of York, the favourite daughter of Edward IV of England, had a very sad life. Before she died in 1503, most of her family members were murdered, executed or died because of illnesses (choroby). She was married to Henry Tudor for political reasons (read: no love) and out of her eight children, only three reached adulthood (osiągnęło dorosły wiek). One of them was Henry VIII (married six times). Elizabeth I was his daughter.


  • Queen Elizabeth II is very unhappy about her grandson Prince William’s going back with Kate Middleton (they broke up in April, but now they are together again). The Queen is sure that their relationship will “end in tears”.
  • Princes William and Harry have been voted two of the country’s most desirable dates (porządane partie). On the Cosmopolitan’s list of the best-looking they are next to Orlando Bloom, Jude Law and Robbie Williams!


What do you know about Britons?

  • During the weekend Britons watch TV all day long!
    NO! Many Britons watch do and it’s still the most popular free time activity (zajęcie w wolnym czasie). But many people love doing small jobs around the home such as gardening and DIY (Do It Yourself – zrób to sam).
  • Pubs are a very important part of British life!
    YES! Going to the pub is the most popular leisure activity outside the home (poza domem). There are over 60,000 pubs in the UK. People talk, eat, drink, meet their friends and relax there. Customs (zwyczaje) in British pubs differ (różnią się) from those in American bars. In Britain, you must go to the bar to order drinks and food and pay immediately (zapłacić od razu), there is no table service (obsługa stolików).
  • All British kids and teenagers wear official school uniforms!
    NOT EXACTLY! Most children wear a school uniform when they are at school. In some schools children must wear jackets and ties (krawaty) but in other schools the uniform is more casual (zwyczajny, codzienny) – a similar vest (kamizelka) or T-shirt for everybody.



Zdecyduj, czy zdania są prawdziwe, czy fałszywe.

Food of the UK

British food has traditionally been based on beef, lamb, pork, chicken and fish and generally served with potatoes and other vegetable. But you have to remember that every part of the UK has its own typical food.

Scotland is famous for its game and salmon, and the national dish is haggis made from lamb’s offal (lungs, liver and heart) mixed with suet, onions, herbs and spices, all put into a skin bag made of a sheep’s stomach. In Wales people love laverbread, which is boiled seaweed.

English food is still the most popular. The sandwich, for example, was invented in England (1762). There is a town named Sandwich in the south of England. John Montagu, the Earl of Sandwich invented a small meal that could be eaten with one hand while he continued his nonstop gambling.

Take-away meals are very popular and most towns have a selection of Indian, Italian, Chinese and Greek restaurants. Fish and chips is the classic English take-away food and is the traditional food of England.

There are also dishes with strange names. English people love Toad-in-the-Hole – sausages covered in batter and roasted, and Bubble and Squeak – typically made from cold vegetables that have been left over from the previous meal, often the Sunday roast. The chief ingredients are potato and cabbage, but carrots, peas, brussels sprouts, and other vegetables can be added.
Britons love their food and even when they travel around the world, they always look for Irish or English bars where they can eat it!


1. Food all over the UK is exactly the same. True False
3. Haggis is a popular dish in Scotland and Wales.
4. A sandwich was invented by a French man.
Bubble and Squeak is made of what you didn’t eat during dinner.


1 – false; 2 – false; 3 – false; 4 – false; 5 – true; 6 – true.