The environment is in serious danger nowadays. Discuss the major environmental problems in the world.

Degradation of the environment is one of the most urgent problems of the contemporary world and it concerns the whole Earth. Teachers should talk to children ­about environmental issues from the very beginning of school education to make them more sensitive to ecological problems. Mass media should treat this topic as a priority. People have to be aware of the serious nature of the problem and they should know the causes and consequences of environmental destruction.

One of the greatest problems we face is pollution and the rate at which it is increas­ing. It’s an effect of industrial development and threatens not only large cities but our entire planet. There are more and more cars, which pollute the air with fumes and cause smog over large cities. Factories not only contaminate the atmosphere but also affect the soil and water in lakes, rivers and seas.

The problem of pollution concerns both developed and poorer regions. Highly industrialized countries are constructing more and more plants which emit gases directly into the atmosphere. Poorer countries don’t have money for large industry but at the same time they use outdated technology and they are not rich enough to install good filters on factory chimneys.

The emission of sulphur and carbon dioxide into the air contributes to acid rain which causes the death of many trees and animals in many places in the world. Dangerous gases mix with water and then this mixture falls back to the ground causing harm to people, wildlife and even buildings.

Another serious problem is water pollution. We hear news about tanker leaks far too often. Oil spills make water unfit for any use and completely destroy wildlife in the affected area. Fish, birds and many other animals die, their ecosystem is damaged and the ecological balance is disrupted. Moreover, in many countries sewage is thoughtlessly dumped directly into rivers or the sea. All this means that in future we may face the problem of a shortage of drinking water.

Pollution warms the Earth’s atmosphere, melts the ice caps and affects the ­weather. Certain changes in climate can already be seen. Our planet is becoming hotter and hotter. All these changes are the effect of global warming and may cause serious ­problems in the future. Northern countries will get warmer and wetter, while southern countries will get hotter and drier. The level of the sea will rise and vast areas of land will disappear under water. Many animals and plants will die.

Deforestation is another urgent problem which should be solved to protect our planet from complete destruction. We need trees because they give us oxygen, but ­people continue to cut them down over large areas. Almost half of the world’s remaining tropical rainforests are in ­South America. They are called the green lungs of the Earth so it should be everybody’s concern to protect them. Deforestation may bring about floods, soil erosion and the extinction of many species of animals.

All the examples mentioned above show that the subject of the degradation of the environment is really important and nobody should stay indifferent to it. By destroying nature we do harm to ­ourselves and personally become the cause of the environmental crisis affecting the world.


Przykładowe pytanie, jakie może zadać egzaminator

What can be done to save the environment?

I believe that not only politicians and environ­mental activists should do something for the environment but also ordinary citizens, as they can also do their share in saving our planet. We should buy only ecologically safe products made from or wrapped in recycled or biodegradable material. We should recycle paper, metal and glass by putting them into specially designed containers. We may also save water and energy by taking a shower instead of having a bath, turning off the light when we leave the room and using heating and air conditioning only when we need it. Moreover, we shouldn’t buy products which come from ­endangered ­species and we can think about supporting or takeing part in ecological campaigns or protests.