Europe is a continent with a wide variety of climates. It’s hot and dry in Spain, Italy, Greece and the south of France, whereas in the north it’s very cold. Great Britain has a temperate climate, with mild winters, humid springs and warm summers.
Climate – klimat
- warm – ciepły
- cold – zimny
- mild – łagodny
- humid – wilgotny
- dry – suchy
- temperate – umiarkowany
The weather in September is usually pleasant, but in October the days become chilly and the first frosts arrive. Days become shorter and shorter and rain becomes sleet and then snow. Blizzards and snowdrifts are common in December. During such cold days it’s better to stay at home and wait until the ground thaws and the ice melts.
Cold weather – chłodna, zimowa pogoda
- chilly days – chłodne dni
- frost – mróz, szron
- blizzard – zamieć (śnieżna)
- snowdrifts – zaspy
- sleet – deszcz ze śniegiem
Warm/ hot weather
The holidays in a large city are a nightmare, especially during a heat wave. It’s really hard to move around because it’s boiling in buses and trams. It’s so hot and humid that everybody looks for the shade of trees in the park. It’s the only place where you can enjoy a scorching day. Nevertheless, such sultry weather is usually so unbearable that I dream about a mild climate.
Warm/hot weather – letnia pogoda, upał
- warm/hot weather – ciepło, upał
- heat wave – fala upałów
- humid – wilgotno
- scorching – skwarny
- boiling – bardzo gorąco
- mild – łagodny, umiarkowany
- sultry weather – duchota
Last summer was terrible; it was cold and damp. We had two weeks of beautiful weather in June but it changed at the end of the month. Foggy mornings, showers and drizzles were nothing if compared to torrential rains which came in July. I can remember the first cloudburst on the 5th July. The sky was overcast and a very high wind started to blow. And then, there was a real downpour with lightening and thunder. I was really scared, especially when it started to hail. The storm damaged several houses in my neighbourhood.
Wet weather– wilgotna, jesienna pogoda
- damp – wilgotny
- drizzle – mżawka/mżyć
- to pour down – lać
- downpour – ulewa
- torrential rain – ulewny deszcz
- shower – przelotny deszcz
- storm – burza
- thunderstorm – burza z piorunami
- lightening – błyskawica
- thunder – grzmot
- hail – grad
- overcast – pochmurny
- cloudburst – oberwanie chmury
- mist/misty – mgiełka/mglisty
- fog/foggy – mgła/mglisty
Sailing is my favourite sport and although I’m only a beginner I sail as often as possible. I often watch weather forecasts to see if they will announce a storm or a hurricane. I’m not crazy enough to go sailing when there’s a gale warning. But in my country the weather is changeable and I can wait in the harbour for bright intervals and a gentle breeze. But if the day is really blustery I prefer to stay at home.
Wind – wiatr
- breeze – wietrzyk
- gale – wichura
- hurricane – huragan
- blustery weather – zawierucha
- low pressure – niskie ciśnienie
- weather forecast – prognoza pogody
- rainbow – tęcza
- changeable weather – zmienna pogoda
- bright intervals – przejaśnienia
- to clear up – przejaśniać się
- to melt – topić się (o śniegu)
- to thaw – rozmarzać (o lodzie)
The weather is all around us all the time! We cannot control it and it rules our lives!
Big houses with thick walls are necessary in places where it is cold, or freezing most of the time. Heavy snow, heavy rain, storms and hurricanes make people build strong houses. In sunny weather, where it is hot, people can live in light houses even made of grass!
The houses we live in, the clothes we wear (you can’t wear a T-shirt in temperatures below zero!), the things we do in our free time – they all depend on the weather!
Weather and climate also decide what plants can grow in certain areas and what people can grow! Unfortunately, the weather can be very unpredictable. Cloudy weather can bring a storm. Thunder and lighting, although beautiful can be really dangerous. Light breeze may turn into a hurricane and fog can paralyse car and plane traffic.
Luckily, there are many people who are fascinated with the weather. Someone who studies the weather is called a meteorologist. They prepare weather forecasts and thanks to them we can guess what the weather will be like tomorrow.
- heavy snow/rain – silny, duży śnieg/deszcz
- storms and hurricanes – burze i huragany
- temperatures below zero – temperatury poniżej zera
- they all depend on the weather – one wszystkie zależą od pogody
- unpredictable – nieprzewidywalna
- thunder and lighting – grzmot i błyskawica
- light breeze – delikatna bryza
- turn into… – zmienić się w…
- fog – mgła
- meteorologist – meteorolog
- weather forecasts – prognoza pogody
- What’s the weather like today? – Jaka jest dzisiaj pogoda?
- Do you like sunny/rainy weather? – Lubisz słoneczną/deszczową pogodę?
- It’s boiling/freezing! – Jest upalnie/lodowato!
- What’s the temperature? – Jaka jest temperatura?
- It’s 20 degrees. – Jest 20 stopni.
- It’s below/above zero. – Jest poniżej/powyżej zera.
- Did you watch the weather forecast yesterday? – Czy oglądałeś wczoraj prognozę pogody?
- It’s getting colder/warmer. – Robi się zimniej/cieplej.
- The wind is very strong today. – Wiatr jest bardzo silny dzisiaj.
- It’s very cloudy. – Jest bardzo pochmurno.
- It’s pouring. – Leje (deszcz).
- It’s raining cats and dogs. – idiom: Leje jak z cebra. (dosłownie: Pada kotami