I have had some health trouble recently. My mum thought I had a cold but I had a really high temperature and I came up in a rash so we decided to call for a doctor. It turned out that I had got infected with scarlet fever. It is a very contagious disease but luckily not lethal.

I have to visit my cousin in the hospital. She has always had poor health and has been prone to infections. However, it has turned out recently that she has diabetes. At first doctors gave wrong diagnosis and she did not respond to the treatment. Then they prescribed her some medicine which had side effects.


Dear Mark,
I am really sorry but I have to cancel our meeting. I got infected with jaundice. You have probably heard of hepatitis B so you know it is a chronic disease which can ruin one’s health. I have to stay in hospital for two weeks. I hoped it to be only intoxication but the internist gave a diagnosis at once.

I cannot come to see you tomorrow. I am feeling really bad. I am afraid I have a bout of flu. I am running a fever and I have a terrible backache, sore throat and runny nose. I hope it is not tonsillitis as my sister has suffered from it lately.


I broke my leg last winter holiday. I fell down while I was skiing. At first I thought I had only sprained my ankle but it really hurt and the swelling was enormous. I had my leg in plaster for six weeks and I used crutches to be able to walk. My friend who also had a skiing accident was luckier. He hit a tree but ended up only with minor injuries and some bumps, bruises and a black eye.

My younger sister has anaemia. Some time ago mum noticed that she lost weight and she often suffers from dizziness, shortness of breath and insomnia. After she had fainted we decided it was time to consult a specialist.

I went for a wedding reception last Saturday. I enjoyed myself very much but the next day I felt terrible. I had heartburn and nausea in the morning but it was nothing if compared with diarrhoea and vomiting which started in the afternoon. I thought it was food poisoning but then I felt itching and tingling. When I saw a rash on my skin I realised it was an allergic reaction to some food I had eaten at the reception.

My best friend is off colour today. She claims she has a cold but I do not believe her. She has neither a sore throat and a runny nose nor fever. I guess it is a nervous breakdown as she split up with her boyfriend today. One moment she is in a stupor and then I can see some anxiety and restlessness in her behaviour.

to fall ill – zachorować

  • illness, disease – choroba
  • health trouble – problem zdrowotny
  • poor health, ill health – słabe zdrowie
  • neglect oneself – zaniedbać zdrowie
  • to suffer from (a disease) – zachorować na (chorobę), cierpieć na
  • to get infected with – zarazić się
  • to catch a cold – przeziębić się czymś
  • to be treated for sth – leczyć się na coś
  • to call for a doctor – wezwać lekarza
  • to be prone to – być podatnym na
  • to ruin one’s health – zrujnować sobie zdrowie
  • curable – uleczalny
  • incurable – nieuleczalny
  • infectious, contagious, catching – zaraźliwy
  • chronic – przewlekły
  • congenital – wrodzony
  • terminal, fatal, lethal – śmiertelny
  • past/beyond cure, past recovery – nieuleczalny
  • to die of – umrzeć na
  • to be off colour – niezbyt dobrze się czuć
  • to be under the weather – czuć się nie najlepiej
  • to have side effects – powodować efekty uboczne
  • to respond to a treatment – reagować na leczenie

illnesses – choroby

  • flu, influenza – grypa
  • tonsillitis – angina
  • mumps – świnka
  • measles – odra
  • scarlet fever – szkarlatyna
  • chickenpox – ospa wietrzna
  • tuberculosis – gruźlica
  • jaundice – żółtaczka
  • hepatitis A/B/C – zapalenie wątroby typu A/B/C
  • Kreutzfeld-Jacob disease – choroba Creutzfeldta-Jacoba
  • allergy – alergia
  • asthma – astma
  • diabetes – cukrzyca
  • epilepsy – padaczka
  • heart attack – zawał serca
  • anaemia – anemia
  • intoxication – zatrucie
  • anorexia – anoreksja
  • bulimia – bulimia
  • AIDS – AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
  • HIV-positive – nosiciel wirusa HIV
  • tumour – nowotwór (guz)
  • cancer – rak
  • cerebral palsy – porażenie mózgowe
  • appendicitis – zapalenie wyrostka robaczkowego
  • rheumatism – reumatyzm
  • rabies – wścieklizna
  • infection – infekcja
  • minor injury – drobna, niegroźna kontuzja
  • indigestion – niestrawność
  • food poisoning – zatrucie pokar­mowe
  • broken leg/arm– złamana noga/ ręka
  • (bone) fracture – złamanie (kości)
  • sprained ankle – skręcona kostka
  • coronary disease, a heart condition – choroba wieńcowa
  • heart failure – wada serca
  • high/low blood pressure – wysokie/niskie ciśnienie krwi

symptoms – objawy

  • pain – ból
  • fever, high temperature – gorączka
  • to run a fever – mieć gorączkę
  • to carry a virus – być nosicielem wirusa
  • cough – kaszel
  • to sneeze – kichać
  • to sweat – pocić się
  • to fight off – pokonać, zwalczyć chorobę
  • to be out of breath – dostać zadyszki
  • to choke, stifle – dławić, dusić się
  • to bleed – krwawić
  • to pass out – stracić przytomność
  • to go into a coma – zapaść w śpiączkę
  • nasal congestion – zapchany nos/krwotok z nosa
  • swelling – opuchlizna
  • runny nose – katar
  • sore throat – ból gardła
  • headache – ból głowy
  • backache – ból pleców
  • earache – ból ucha
  • stomachache – ból brzucha
  • backache – ból kręgosłupa
  • allergy for… – alergia na…
  • to be allergic to… – być uczulonym na…
  • shivers – dreszcze
  • dizziness – zawroty głowy
  • insomnia – bezsenność
  • nausea – nudności
  • vomiting – wymioty
  • diarrhoea – biegunka
  • constipation – obstrukcja
  • heartburn – zgaga
  • shortness of breath – duszność
  • fainting – omdlenie
  • sweating – potliwość
  • bleeding – krwawienie
  • swelling – obrzęk, opuchnięcie
  • tingling – mrowienie
  • itching – swędzenie
  • rash – wysypka
  • stupor – odrętwienie
  • anxiety – lęk
  • restlessness – niepokój
  • weight loss – spadek wagi
  • injury – obrażenie, zranienie
  • wound – rana
  • slash, a cut – rana cięta, skaleczenie
  • bump – guz
  • bruise – siniak
  • black eye – podbite oko
  • sprain – zwichnięcie
  • fracture – złamanie
  • trauma – uraz, wstrząs
  • aftereffects – powikłania
  • scar – blizna
  • to twist one’s ankle – skręcić nogę w kostce
  • bout of fever – atak gorączki
  • to have a bout of flu – chorować na grypę
  • outbreak – wybuch epidemii
  • nervous breakdown – załamanie nerwowe
  • to come up in a rash – dostać wysypki
  • to have pins and needles in sth – czuć mrowienie w czymś
  • blister – bąbel, pęcherz na skórze
  • to hurt – boleć
  • to suffer from sth – cierpieć na coś
  • to feel bad – czuć się źle
  • to choke – dławić się
  • to suffocate – dusić się
  • to faint – mdleć
  • to lose consciousness – tracić przytomność
  • to get injured – zranić się
  • to be sick, to vomit – wymiotować
  • I have (a) stomachache. – Boli mnie brzuch.
  • I have a sore throat. – Boli mnie gardło.
  • I have a cold. – Jestem przeziębiony.
  • I am short of breath. – Nie mogę złapać oddechu.
  • I have a cough. – Kaszlę.
  • I feel sick. – Jest mi niedobrze.
  • My leg hurts. – Boli mnie noga.


I would like to be a doctor in the future. I have not decided yet which specialisation to choose but I still have time. I have been thinking about becoming a surgeon, a neurologist or a cardiologist as they seem the most challenging and rewarding options to me. My dad is an internist but he is planning to retrain and start a new career as a laryngologist or homeopath. My mum advises me to be a dentist or an orthodontist as they earn a lot of money. However, I do not find this idea interesting.

doctors & paramedics – lekarze i personel medyczny

  • anaesthetist – anastezjolog
  • cardiologist, a heart specialist– kardiolog
  • dentist – dentysta
  • dermatologist – dermatolog
  • gynaecologist – ginekolog
  • physioterapist – fizjoterapeuta
  • homeopath – homeopata
  • internist – internista
  • laryngologist – laryngolog
  • neurologist – neurolog
  • nurse – pielęgniarka
  • ambulance man – sanitariusz
  • first-aid worker – ratownik
  • midwife – położna
  • optician – okulista
  • orthodontist – ortodonta
  • orthopaedic surgeon – ortopeda
  • pediatrician – pediatra
  • psychiatrist – psychiatra
  • radiologist – radiolog
  • rheumatologist – reumatolog
  • surgeon – chirurg
  • GP (general practitioner) – lekarz pierwszego kontaktu

At the doctor’s
I had an appointment with a doctor yesterday. I came at 3 p.m., registered in a reception and waited 25 minutes in the waiting room until he could see me. I told him I felt pain in the chest, I was often out of breath and I lost consciousness the other day. First, he took my temperature and blood pressure. Then he examined me thoroughly with his stethoscope and said it was nothing serious, only an infection. He wrote a prescription and told me to keep warm and take medicine three times a day.

at the doctor’s – u lekarza

  • patient – pacjent
  • to have an appointment – być umówionym u lekarza
  • to register in a reception – zgłosić się w recepcji
  • waiting room – poczekalnia
  • examination – badanie lekarskie
  • to examine – badać
  • prescription – recepta
  • to make, give a diagnosis – postawić diagnozę
  • stethoscope – stetoskop
  • to take someone’s blood pressure – mierzyć komuś ciśnienie
  • to take someone’s temperature – mierzyć komuś temperaturę
  • to take someone’s pulse – mierzyć komuś puls
  • to prescribe treatment – zalecić terapię
  • to refer sb to a specialist – skierować kogoś do specjalisty
  • to write a medical certificate – napisać zwolnienie lekarskie
  • to take medicines – zażywać lekarstwa
  • to vaccinate – szczepić się
  • checkup – badanie ogólne
  • to dress a wound – opatrzyć ranę
  • to give a shot/an injection – dać zastrzyk

At the dentist’s
I had a terrible toothache yesterday. It hurt when I drank something hot and my gums were very sore. It turned out that one of my molars was decayed. I asked a dentist for an anaesthetic so I did not feel anything when she drilled and fixed the filling. She also advised me to have tartar removed as it can be the cause of caries.

at the dentist’s – u dentysty

  • dental surgery – gabinet ­dentystyczny
  • brace – aparat ortodontyczny
  • filling – plomba
  • denture – proteza
  • caries – próchnica
  • decay/cavity – próchnica, ubytek
  • decayed tooth – popsuty ząb
  • tartar – kamień
  • gum – dziąsło
  • upper/lower jaw – górna/dolna szczęka
  • wisdom tooth – ząb mądrości
  • milk tooth – ząb mleczny
  • incisor – przedni/siekacz
  • molar – trzonowy
  • canine tooth – kieł
  • broken tooth – złamany ząb
  • root – korzeń
  • to drill – borować
  • anaesthetic – znieczulenie

In hospital
My brother was operated on a few days ago. He had an appendicitis which was so painful that we had to call for an ambulance. He could not walk so the ambulance men had to carry him on a stretcher. It turned out that his state was critical and he was taken to the operating theatre at once. The operation was successful but he is still staying in a hospital ward waiting for recovery.

When I was five years old I cut my right hand with a knife. It was a stupid accident as I took a sharp knife from a kitchen drawer and tried to open my piggybank with it. The wound was deep so I was taken to a clinic. They gave me local anaesthesia and stitched the wound. I lost a lot of blood so I had to have a blood transfusion. I regained strength very quickly but I still have a scar.

in hospital – w szpitalu

  • surgery – gabinet lekarski/chirurgia
  • ward – oddział
  • injection – zastrzyk
  • ambulance – karetka
  • stretcher – nosze
  • clinic – klinika
  • operation – operacja
  • operating theatre – sala operacyjna
  • X-ray – prześwietlenia
  • recovery – powrót do zdrowia
  • to anaesthetize – znieczulić
  • local anaesthesia, general anaesthesia – znieczulenie miejscowe i ogólne
  • to be operated on – być operowanym
  • to stitch – założyć szwy
  • to set up the fracture – złożyć złamanie
  • transplantation – transplantacja
  • transplant donor – dawca narządów
  • blood transfusion – transfuzja krwi
  • life-saving operation – operacja ratująca życie
  • critical state – stan krytyczny
  • to deteriorate – pogarszać się
  • improvement – polepszenie
  • to regain strength – odzyskiwać siły
  • to recover from, to heal of – wyleczyć, powracać do zdrowia
  • hospice – hospicjum
  • mortuary – kostnica

Remedies & dressings

Go to the chemist’s and buy cough syrup, throat lozenges and nasal drops for Susie as she has a terrible cold. Ask for a flu medication too (just in case). I also need some painkillers and cotton swabs. If you have enough money, buy some skin ointment because I noticed a rash on my hands.

remedies & dressings– leki i środki opatrunkowe

  • antibiotic – antybiotyk
  • drops – krople
  • medicine – lekarstwo
  • pills – pastylki
  • tablets – tabletki
  • cough syrup – syrop na kaszel
  • tranquillisers – środki uspokajające
  • analgesic – środek przeciwbólowy
  • painkiller – środek uśmierzający ból
  • lozenge – pastylka do ssania
  • flu medication – środek na grypę
  • first-aid kit – apteczka pierwszej pomocy
  • sedative, a tranquilliser – środek uspokajający
  • contraceptives – środki antykoncepcyjne
  • ointment – maść
  • suppository – czopek
  • bandage, dressing – bandaż
  • gauze – gaza
  • plaster – gips
  • cast – opatrunek gipsowy
  • to wear a cast/ a sling – nosić gips, temblak
  • crutches – kule
  • walking stick – laska
  • sling – temblak
  • cotton swab – wacik
  • inhaler – inhalator
  • pharmacy, chemist’s – apteka
  • drugstore (US) – apteka


Every society should help and support disabled people as every year thousands of people become physically handicapped in accidents and thousands of children are born with congenital defects or mental disorders. All the handicapped need our understanding and acceptance. They should not feel redundant or rejected by society. It is also important to adjust public buildings for the disabled and make ramps for wheelchairs wherever it is necessary and possible. Disability allowances should be high enough to let those who cannot work live comfortably. Children at school should be taught what being disabled means so that they would never laugh at deaf, blind or paraplegic person.

disability – niepełnosprawność

  • handicapped, disabled people – ludzie niepełnosprawni
  • mentally handicapped – niepełnosprawny umysłowo
  • physically handicapped – niepełnosprawny fizycznie
  • congenital defect – wada wrodzona
  • disability allowance – renta inwalidzka
  • to adjust a building for the disabled – przystosować budynek dla osób niepełnosprawnych
  • blindness – ślepota
  • blind – niewidomy
  • deafness – głuchota
  • deaf – głuchy
  • death and dumb – głuchoniemy
  • hearing aid – aparat słuchowy
  • sign language – język migowy
  • paralysis – paraliż
  • paraplegic – osoba, która ma sparaliżowane nogi
  • quadriplegic – osoba całkowicie sparaliżowana
  • to feel redun­dant – czuć się zbytecznym
  • to be rejected by society – być odrzuconym przez społeczeństwo
  • wheelchair – wózek inwalidzki
  • ramp – podjazd dla wózków
  • birth defect – wada wrodzona
  • mental retardation – opóźnienie w rozwoju umysłowym
  • to inherit a defect – odziedziczyć wadę
  • hereditary – dziedziczny
  • innate – wrodzony
  • acquired – nabyty
  • autism – autyzm
  • lameness – kalectwo, utykanie
  • long-sighted – dalekowzroczny
  • short-sighted – krótkowzroczny


Drugs are dangerous for many reasons. It is very easy to get addicted to them. They are the cause of serious physical and psychological damages and even death. Drug addicts suffer from frightening hallucinations, mood swings and depression. Drug use has become a serious problem among teenagers. They take drugs when they cannot cope with the stress and problems of their lives and they think it is the best way out. They easily find ways to buy amphetamine, cannabis or heroine. They believe they can give up taking drugs any moment. They do not realize that drug therapy is long and withdrawal symptoms painful.

drugs – narkotyki

  • drug addict – narkoman
  • drug addiction – uzależnienie od narkotyków
  • to be addicted to – być uzależnionym od
  • to take drugs – brać narkotyki
  • amphetamine – amfetamina
  • hashish/hash – haszysz
  • heroin – heroina
  • cocaine – kokaina
  • cannabis – konopie indyjskie
  • marijuana – marihuana
  • psychoactive drugs – środki psychotropowe
  • detoxification – detoksykacja
  • drug therapy – terapia odwykowa
  • withdrawal symptoms – zespół odstawienia
  • syringe – strzykawka
  • physical damages – szkody fizyczne
  • psychical damages – szkody psychiczne
  • euphoric conditions – stany euforyczne
  • hallucinations – halucynacje
  • depression – depresja
  • mood swings – zmiany nastroju
  • irritability – drażliwość
  • loss of appetite – utrata apetytu
  • to cope with – poradzić sobie, zmagać się z czymś

Addicted smokers do not think about the dangers connected with smoking and truly believe that it helps relieve the stress of everyday life. They reach for cigarettes for various reasons: for company, out of boredom or because of being under stress. Smoking has a disastrous effect on people’s health. It is the main cause of lung cancer and emphysema. It also increases the risk of heart disease. Giving up smoking requires strong will and determination but it is worth trying. In my opinion smoking should be absolutely forbidden in public places and there should be more antinicotine campaigns.

smoking – palenie papierosów

  • addicted smoker – palacz nałogowy
  • chain smoker – osoba paląca jednego papierosa za drugim
  • to smoke under stress – palić pod wpływem stresu
  • to smoke for company – palić dla towarzystwa
  • to smoke out of boredom – palić z nudów
  • nicotine – nikotyna
  • tobacco – tytoń
  • lung cancer – rak płuc
  • emphysema – rozedma płuc
  • heart disease – choroba serca
  • nicotine poisoning – zatrucie nikotyną
  • to cut down on smoking – ograniczyć palenie
  • to give up smoking, to quit smoking – rzucić palenie
  • passive smoking – bierne palenie
  • non-smoker – niepalący
  • to forbid smoking in public places – zabronić palenia w miejscach publicznych
  • antinicotine campaign – kampania antynikotynowa
  • strong will – silna wola

Alcohol abuse means a tragedy not only for the addicted person but also for his family. It is a shameful and embarrassing weakness which ruins family life and leads to quarrels, acts of violence and divorces. It has a disastrous effect on health as it damages the liver, the brain and the heart. Although there are self-help groups and anti-alcohol centres in all the bigger cities, it is very difficult for an alcoholic to abstain from drinking and become an absolute teetotaller.

alcoholism – alkoholizm

  • alcoholic – alkoholik, alkoholiczka
  • to be addicted to – być uzależnionym
  • addict – osoba uzależniona
  • alcohol abuse – nadużywanie alkoholu
  • weakness – słabość
  • treatment – leczenie
  • disastrous – zgubny, katastrofalny
  • to damage one’s liver – uszkodzić wątrobę
  • shameful – haniebny
  • embarrasing – krępujący, wprawiający w zakłopotanie
  • to give up drinking – rzucić picie
  • self-help group – grupa samopomocy
  • anti-alcohol centre – centrum antyalkoholowe
  • teetotaller – abstynent
  • sober – trzeźwy
  • to take to drinking – rozpić się
  • to develop a drinking problem – popaść w nałóg pijaństwa
  • to abstain from drinking – powstrzymywać się od picia
  • to kick the habit – skończyć z nałogiem

It is not difficult to become a shopaholic nowadays. Shopping centres offer such a wide variety of goods that you cannot resist and you want you have every single thing you see. You tend to buy far more products there than you really need. Sales and special offers tempt you to buy goods that are often useless. You feel an internal compulsion to buy more and more and you do not realise when you become addicted to shopping and you come to the financial ruin.

Shopaholism – nałóg kupowania

  • shopaholic – człowiek uzależniony od zakupów
  • shopping centre – centrum handlowe
  • wide variety – duża różnorodność
  • wide assortment of goods – szeroki wybór towarów
  • internal compulsion – przymus wewnętrzny
  • to tempt – kusić
  • to go bankrupt – zbankrutować
  • to come to the financial ruin – doprowadzić do finansowej ruiny
  • I can’t resist – Nie mogę się oprzeć.



I hate being ill. I wish our health-care system was at least as good as the British National Health Service. I am a health-care beneficiary so I am entitled to health care coverage but there is always some out-of pocket health care. The cost of hospital treatment is covered by the insurance but there are always some extra costs which I have to pay by myself.

health service system – system ochrony zdrowia

  • health insurance – ubezpieczenie zdrowotne
  • National Health Service (NHS) – kasa chorych (system obowiązujący w Wielkiej Brytanii)
  • Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs) – system ubezpieczeń zdrowotnych obowiązujący w Stanach Zjednoczonych
  • Medicaid – państwowy system zapewniający bezpłatne leczenie osobom ubogim w Stanach Zjednoczonych
  • cost of hospital treatment – koszt leczenia szpitalnego
  • to cover by the insurance – opłacić z ubezpieczenia
  • social welfare – opieka społeczna
  • health spending – wydatki na opiekę medyczną
  • health/medical costs – koszty opieki medycznej
  • social/sickness/health insurance – ubezpieczenie zdrowotne
  • health-care coverage – pokrycie kosztów leczenia
  • health-care/social security benefits – świadczenia zdrowotne/soc­jalne
  • health-care beneficiary – ubezpieczony
  • sick leave – urlop chorobowy
  • fixed medical costs – stałe opłaty za opiekę medyczną
  • out-of-pocket health care – dodatkowe opłaty za opiekę medyczną
  • to be entitled to… – być uprawnionym do…
  • be covered – być objętym opieką medyczną
  • to lose cover – stracić prawo do świadczeń
  • to be denied care – nie otrzymać opieki medycznej
  • to be uninsured – być nieubezpieczonym
  • to be reimbursed – uzyskać zwrot kosztów



Healthy lifestyle should be our first priority. If you are not in good health you cannot fully enjoy your life and realize your plans. First of all, you should think about a balanced diet rich in vitamins and minerals. Adopt good eating habits and always choose healthy food such as fruit, vegetables, lean meat and dairy products. Do not forget about exercise which can help you improve your physical condition. Take control over stress and always relax and get enough sleep. Try to be optimistic, laugh as much as possible and think positively.

healthy lifestyle – zdrowy styl życia

  • exercise – ruch
  • to do sport – uprawiać sport
  • to keep fit and healthy – utrzymywać się w dobrej kondycji i zdrowiu
  • to improve physical condition – poprawiać kondycję fizyczną
  • a balanced/varied diet – zrównoważona, urozmaicona dieta
  • vitamins and minerals – witaminy i minerały
  • dairy products – nabiał
  • low-calorie food – jedzenie niskokaloryczne
  • lean meat – chude mięso
  • sugar free diet – dieta bezcukrowa
  • to adopt good eating habits – przyjąć dobre nawyki żywieniowe
  • to lose weight – tracić wagę
  • to fight the stress – opanować, pokonać stres
  • to relieve stress – złagodzić stres
  • to think positively – myśleć pozytywnie
  • to be optimistic – być optymistą
  • to be in a good mood – być w dobrym nastroju
  • to laugh – śmiać się
  • to enjoy life – cieszyć się życiem
  • well-being – dobre samopoczucie
  • to rest – odpoczywać
  • to relax – zrelaksować się
  • to avoid – unikać
  • tiredness – zmęczenie
  • to live at a great pace – żyć w szybkim tempie
  • resistance, stamina – odporność, witalność
  • energy – energia
  • the immune system – układ odpornościowy
  • enjoy good health – cieszyć się dobrym zdrowiem
  • look the picture of health – być okazem zdrowia
  • to be as fit as a fiddle – być zdrowym jak ryba