inventions & ­discoveries

  • light bulb – żarówka świetlna
  • electric current – prąd elektryczny
  • vaccine – szczepionka
  • vaccination – szczepienie
  • antibiotic – antybiotyk
  • penicillin – penicylina
  • steam engine – silnik parowy
  • radiation – promieniowanie
  • gravity – grawitacja
  • telescope – teleskop
  • microscope – mikroskop
  • computer – komputer
  • printer – drukarka
  • photocopier – kserokopiarka
  • phone – telefon
  • video recorder – magnetowid
  • tape recorder – magnetofon
  • CD player – odtwarzacz płyt CD
  • digital camera – aparat cyfrowy
  • camcorder – kamera wideo
  • application – zastosowanie
  • the industrial revolution – rewolucja przemysłowa

household appliances – urządzenia domowe

  • dishwasher – zmywarka
  • food-processor – robot kuchenny
  • blender – mikser
  • coffee machine – ekspres do kawy
  • freezer – zamrażarka
  • fridge/ refrigerator – lodówka
  • microwave (oven) – kuchenka mikrofalowa
  • vacuum cleaner, hoover – odkurzacz
  • washing machine – pralka
  • to switch on – włączyć
  • to switch off – wyłączyć
  • to plug in – włączyć (do kontaktu)
  • to press the button – nacisnąć guzik
  • to operate – obsługiwać
  • plug – wtyczka
  • socket – gniazdko
  • lead, flex – przewód
  • battery – bateria
  • switch – przełącznik, wyłącznik

device – przyrządy, urządzenia

  • calculator – kalkulator
  • remote control – pilot
  • ingenious – pomysłowy
  • labour-saving – usprawniający, ułatwiający pracę
  • portable – przenośny
  • useful – użyteczny, przydatny
  • useless – bezużyteczny, ­nieprzydatny
  • handy – poręczny, przydatny

genetic engineering – inżynieria genetyczna

  • gene – gen
  • cell – komórka
  • embryo – zarodek
  • to carry information – przenosić informacje
  • species – gatunek
  • genetic disorders – zaburzenia genetyczne
  • to alter – zmienić
  • cloning – klonowanie
  • to clone – klonować
  • reproduction – powielenie
  • ethical – etyczny
  • unethical – nieetyczny

Scientists have made a lot of effort to make our life safer and more comfortable. In 1929 Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, which saved a lot of human lives. Researchers continue working on new vaccines and cures for all sorts of diseases. Thanks to antibiotics we can recover from many illnesses which were incurable before. Another discovery worth mentioning is a steam engine by James Watt made our life more comfortable and enabled the industrial revolution.

I really love music so I can’t imagine my life without my stereo system. This equipment enables me to listen to my favourite bands whenever I feel like to. I have a good quality tape recorder and a CD player. I also have a video recorder because they sometimes show good concerts on TV and I like to record them. Now I’m thinking about buying a camcorder and a digital camera in case I meet some of my favourite singers and have an opportunity of taking a photo.

household appliances
I’m moving to a new flat next week. I already have all the basic household appliances such as a refrigerator, a freezer, a washing machine and a vacuum cleaner. My parents gave me a very expensive microwave oven but I still don’t know how to operate it. The first time I used it I thought it was going to be easy. I plugged it in, put some vegetables inside and pressed the button. It switched off automatically but the vegetables were overcooked. I have to read the instruction manual to learn what all these buttons and switches are for.

I would like to have a device that would help me clean my dog after a walk in various weather conditions. I wonder why nobody has thought about it before. It should be portable and handy so that I could use it outside. It would be a labour-saving and useful device especially on rainy days.

genetic engineering
Genetic engineering is the science of changing the genetic structure of an animal, plant or human being in order to affect the way it develops. Researchers make an exact copy of a plant or an animal by taking a cell from it and developing it artificially. Such a reproduction is called cloning. It is one of the most controversial branches of science because of the threat of cloning humans which seems highly unethical.


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