Political system – system polityczny
The United States of America is a constitutional federal republic with a strong democratic tradition. There are three levels of government: federal, state and local. Officials of each of these levels are either elected via secret ballot or appointed by other elected officials. The federal government is comprised of the Legislative Branch, the Executive Branch and the Judicial Branch. These three branches were designed to apply checks and balances on each other. The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government. It is bicameral, being comprised of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives consists of 435 members, each of whom represents a congressional district and serves for a two-year term. All executive power in the federal government is vested in the President of the United States, although power is often delegated to his/her Cabinet members and advice sought from a staff. The highest court is the Supreme Court, which currently consists of nine justices. The court deals with federal and constitutional matters, and can declare legislation or executive action made at any level of the government as unconstitutional, nullifying the law and creating precedent for future law and decisions. Below the Supreme Court are the courts of appeals, and below them in turn are the district courts, which are the general trial courts for federal law.
Geography – geografia
The United States shares land borders with Canada and Mexico, and territorial water boundaries with Canada, Russia, the Bahamas, and numerous smaller nations.
Forty-eight of the states are in the single region between Canada and Mexico. Alaska is at the north-western end of North America, separated from the Lower 48 by Canada. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. The capital city, Washington, District of Columbia is a federal district located on land donated by the state of Maryland. The United States’ landscape is one of the most varied among those of the world’s nations: among its many features are temperate forestland and rolling hills, on the east coast; mangrove, in Florida; the Great Plains, in the centre of the country; the Mississippi – Missouri river system; the Great Lakes, four of the five of which are shared with Canada; the Rocky Mountains, west of the Great Plains; deserts and temperate coastal zones, west of the Rocky Mountains; and temperate rain forests, in the Pacific northwest. Alaska’s tundra and the volcanic, tropical islands of Hawaii add to the geographic diversity.
- capital: Washington
- the Northeast – część północno-wschodnia
- New York, Boston, Chicago
- the Great Lakes (Wielkie Jeziora): Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, Ontario
Niagara Falls – wodospad Niagara
- the Central Basin – Basen Centralny
- prairie – preria
- rivers: the Mississippi,
- Ohio, Missouri
- the Southeast – część południowo-wschodnia
- the Appalachian Mountains, Florida, Virginia, Texas
- the Great Plains – Wielkie Równiny
- Denver, prairies, cowboys and farmers
- Mountains and Deserts – góry i pustynie
- Los Angeles
- the Rocky Mountains – Góry Skaliste
- the Sierra Nevada
- national parks (parki narodowe): Yellowstone, Wyoming, Death Valley
- the Coast Valleys – Nadbrzeżne doliny
- San Francisco, Seatle
WASHINGTON, D.C. – Waszyngton
Washington, D.C. is the capital city of the United States of America. ‘D.C.’ stands for the ‘District of Columbia’, the federal district containing the city of Washington. The city is named after George Washington, military leader of the American Revolution and the first President of the United States.
Washington is home to numerous national landmarks and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the United States. The National Mall is a large, open area in the centre of the city featuring many monuments to American leaders, as well as connecting the White House and the United States Capitol buildings. Located prominently in the centre of the Mall is the Washington Monument. Other notable points of interest near the Mall include the Jefferson Memorial, Lincoln Memorial, National World War II Memorial and Vietnam Veterans Memorial.
- federal government – rząd federalny
- the White House – Biały Dom
- the National Capitol – siedziba Kongresu
- the Lincoln Memorial – pomnik Lincolna
- Washington Monument – pomnik Waszyngtona
American holidays – amerykańskie święta
Thanksgiving is an annual holiday observed in the United States to celebrate being thankful for the things one has. It is celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. Thanksgiving is traditionally celebrated with a large dinner shared among friends and family. Because turkey is the most common main dish of the dinner, Thanksgiving is sometimes colloquially called Turkey Day. Many Americans would say it is ‘incomplete’ without cranberry sauce, stuffing, and gravy. Other commonly served dishes include sweet potatoes, mashed potatoes, green beans and a Waldorf salad. For dessert, various pies are served, particularly pumpkin pie, apple pie and pecan pie.
In the United States, Independence Day, also called the Fourth of July, is a federal holiday celebrating the adoption of the Declaration of Independence in 1776, declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. It is commonly associated with parades, barbecues, picnics, baseball games, and various other public and private events celebrating the history and traditions of the US
Columbus Day is a holiday celebrated on the 2nd Monday in October in many countries in the Americas, commemorating the date of Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the New World in 1492.
Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday that takes place on May 30th and is observed on the last Monday of May. It was formerly known as Decoration Day. This holiday commemorates US men and women who died in military service for their country.
Veterans Day is the anniversary of the signing of the World War I Peace Treaty. In the United States it is celebrated as a federal holiday on 11 November. It honors all veterans of the United States armed forces. A traditional observation is a moment of silence at 11a.m. remembering those who fought for peace.
- Thanksgiving Day – Święto Dziękczynienia
- fourth Thursday in November – czwarty czwartek listopada
- roast turkey – pieczony indyk
- cranberry sauce – sos żurawinowy
- stuffing – nadzienie
- blessing – błogosławieństwo
- good harvest – dobre zbiory
- family reunion – zjazd rodzinny
Independence Day – Dzień Niepodległości
July 4 – 4 lipca
Declaration of Independence – Deklaracja Niepodległości (1776)
second Monday in October – drugi poniedziałek października
Memorial Day – Dzień Pamięci
last Monday in May – ostatni poniedziałek maja
to honour the dead – uczcić zmarłych
Veteran’s Day – Dzień Weterana
November 11 – 11 listopada